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Genever (also known as Hollands Gin [by the English], genievre or jenever), is the precursor to gin and the spirit from which gin evolved. It shares with gin one main attribute, that is, its main flavouring element is juniper. It originates from the Netherlands, where it is the traditional national spirit. It is still often drunk frozen as a shot, sometimes as an accompaniment to the local delicacy of pickled herring, or on the side of a beer, known as a kopstoot (headbang, or headbutt). Genever is said to have been created by Sylvius de Bouve, a Dutch chemist and alchemist practising in the late 16th century. By the 17th century it was being used less as a medicine and being drunk for its flavour and alcoholic properties. There are three styles of genever, Oude, Jonge and Korenwijn. It is a common misconception that the Oude (old) and Jonge (young) refer to age statements, this is untrue. In fact these terms refer to the style. Oude style is made from at least 15% malt wine but not more than 20 grams of sugar per litre, whereas Jonge can contain no more than 15% malt wine, and 10 grams of sugar per litre. Jonge style is therefore made with more neutral grain spirit, which has a lighter flavour. Korenwijn is a very old style, which contains between 51 and 70% malt wine and up to 20 grams of sugar per litre. It is then often aged for a few years in oak casks, giving it a heavy full flavour that could be called an acquired taste. It has recently been discovered that imports of genever to America during the 19th century far outstripped that of gin, meaning that where cocktail recipes of the era (the Martini being a prime example) called for gin, it was far more likely that the recipe was referring to genever, meaning that modern perception of the way these classic drinks were made could be somewhat askew. Genever is the origin of the phrase Dutch Courage', so called by English soldiers who saw the Dutch drink their genever before going into battle, making them fearless in the face of danger. Bols have recently reissued a top end genever aimed at the top end cocktail market, aiming to bring genever into the contemporary bar.