Filtered apple juice is transparent with a distinctive golden hue. All apple juice must be refrigerated after opening. Some apple juice is sold refrigerated, but it not necessarily different from UHT packaged or bottled pasteurized juice. Apple juice can be made fresh in a fruit and vegetable juicer, but it oxidizes quickly and turns brown. Stirring in about 10ml lemon juice for each apple will slow the color change.
High in ascorbic acid, blackberries bring a tart sweet-and-sour flavor to a cocktail as well as a deep purple color. Frozen and very ripe berries release more color than other berries. Blackberries may be placed in a shaker and shaken with a drink. This is faster than muddling and allows you to strain out the seeds.
There are a number of brands of orange bitters on the market today including Regan’s Orange Bitters, Bitter Truth Orange Bitters, Fee Brothers Orange Bitters, and Angostura Orange Bitters. A simple orange bitters can be made by steeping the peel from one whole orange and stick of cassia bark in 500ml of blended whisky for about twenty-four hours or to taste.
This common green stalk has become a common garnish on the Bloody Mary since it first appeared on the Bloody Maries served at the Pump Room in Chicago in the 1960s. It can be split lengthwise to create a more delicate looking garnish. A recent hybrid has been produced that grows as a natural straw. Celery is also one of the ingredients in mirepoix, which is ht basis of much French cooking. Along with green peppers and onions it is part of the “holy trinity” of Creole cuisine. Images of celery leaves appear on Tutankhamun’s tomb.
Coffee should always be fresh. It should be used for cocktails within a few hours. One caution: hot coffee will melt a lot of ice. It can be refrigerated prior to use in a cocktail to reduce the amount of dilution it brings to a drink. Whether coffee is used in a hot or cold drink it should be made strong.
As with all drink ingredients, the best quality ingredients produce the best cocktail. Ice cream may seem inappropriate in a balanced cocktail, but the contents of ice cream: sugar, cream, egg, are all ingredients in many classic cocktails. A portion of ice cream equal to the amount of spirit will provide a proper balance of sweetness.
A whole egg is called for in a number of classic drinks. It adds froth, creaminess and density, plus a light but distinctive flavor. Although raw eggs are banned by health codes in some parts of the United States, salmonella the food-borne pathogen associated with raw eggs cannot survive the levels of alcohol or citric acid found in most drinks that call for an egg. Pasteurized eggs may be used as a substitute.
As the size of eggs varies, all cocktail recipes here are standardized with large eggs. If you are using medium or extra large eggs, there will be minor differences. Eggs should be as fresh as possible, and the shells should be clean and unbroken.
A very flavorful sweetener, honey may be used alone or half and half with a more neutral sweetener such as simple syrup. Honey has about the same sweetness concentration as granulated sugar.
This common yellow citrus fruit can be cut in a variety of ways for use in cocktails. It can be split in half and juiced. It can be cut into wedges, wheels, half wheels, twists, horse’s necks and more. Lemons are sweeter than limes and less acidic.
Always squeeze lemon juice fresh if possible. There is no form of pre-packaged lemon juice that approximates the flavor of fresh juice. 25ml is generally equal to half a lemon.
A lightly carbonated sweet soft drink flavored with lemon and sometimes hints of rosewater.
Cut the top and bottom off a lime. Then cut across the lime to create 5mm thick lime slices.
Milk, used in a number of drinks, must always be fresh. Whole milk is always preferable for use in mixed drinks. Milk is generally not a good substitute for recipes that call for cream. In those recipes, cream should be used.
Cocktail onions are small pickled white onions. A drink may be garnished with up to three. The Gibson is traditionally garnished with two. You may wish to drain the brine from a jar of onions and replace it with dry vermouth. This creates a more refined flavor.
Always squeeze orange juice fresh if possible. There is no form of pre-packaged orange juice that approximates the flavor of fresh juice. 40ml is generally equal to half an orange.
A large tropical fruit native to parts of Brasil and Paraguay, the pineapple is the fruit of a bromeliad plant. Pineapple wedges and chunks are commonly used as garnish. The leaves from the top of the pineapple are also sometimes used as garnish. Pineapple juice appears in many traditional recipes. Pineapple juice can be made fresh with a fruit and vegetable juicer, but it is most commonly purchased in cartons, bottles, or tins. If you are using tinned pineapple juice be sure to pour it from the tin into a plastic or glass container once it is opened. Otherwise the juice will acquire a tin taste.
To cut a pineapple first remove the top and base. Then slice the skin off from top to bottom. Be careful not to remove any more of the yellow flesh than necessary. Next slice the pineapple into quarters from top to bottom. Then slice off the core. Last, cut each quarter into wedges by cutting across the quarters in slices about 15mm thick.
Cola is a carbonated soft drink traditionally containing an extract of the kola nut, the bitter seed of evergreen trees found in the tropical jungles of Africa. Coke and Pepsi dominate the cola market today.
This very common yellow fruit adds creamy thickness and sweetness to blended drinks. If a banana slice is to be used as a garnish, it cannot be pre-cut as banana slices turn brown very quickly. To cut a banana slice garnish it is best to leave the peel on, and cut across the banana at a diagonal angle. Then cut a notch into the slice to affix it to the rim of the glass.
Sweeter than blackberries and with a lighter color, raspberries bring soft fruit and floral notes to a drink as well as a blush color similar to white zinfandel wine. Frozen and very ripe berries release more color than other berries. Raspberries may be placed in a shaker and shaken with a drink. This is faster than muddling and allows you to strain out the seeds.
A highly concentrated aromatic bitters made from a variety of spices including gentian root, cinchona bark, and cassia. Where it is called for, it should not be omitted or reduced as the flavor is essential to the balance of drinks such as the Manhattan, Pisco Sour, and the Old Fashioned.
Cherries classic maraschino
Maraschino cherries were originally made by macerating cherries in maraschino liqueur made from marasca cherries. The cherry stones are crushed in the process of making maraschino liqueur releasing a subtle almond flavor.
Artificially colored and flavored red maraschino cherries are frequently used as replacements for the calssic dark-hed maraschino cherries.
The most common form of coconut behind the bar is sweetened cream of coconut. This normally comes in tins and begins to turn bad a few days after it is opened.
Comparable to half-and-half in the United States, single cream has 10-12% butterfat.
Slightly heavier than American heavy cream and whipping cream (both of which may be substituted for double cream), double cream has a butterfat content of around 48%. In comparison, whipping cream contains 30-40% butterfat. It is sold fresh and must be refrigerated prior to use.
Used in many traditional recipes to add froth and creaminess to drinks. Although raw egg whites are banned by health codes in some parts of the United States, salmonella the food-borne pathogen associated with raw eggs cannot survive the levels of alcohol or citric acid found in most drinks that call for egg whites. Pasteurized egg whites may be used as a substitute.
Egg white is used in cocktails as a foaming agent. When shaken, beaten, whisked or blended, egg whites become foamy. The best example in cooking is meringue. The best example in mixed drinks is the Ramos Gin Fizz.
Lemon crusta twist
Cut the peel from the entire center of a lemon by going around the fruit with a paring knife or vegetable peeler. The twist should be about 3cm wide.
AKA lemon zest, lemon peel
There are two ways to cut a twist. Using a knife or vegetable peeler, lift an oblong strip of the yellow peel being careful to take as little of the white pith as possible. This gives the best, but least economical twist. You can get many more twists from a lemon if you cut the top and bottom off, then separate and remove the pulp with a bar spoon. Cut the remaining piece of lemon skin open lengthwise. Then slice it into strips. These will have a lot of pith and will get squeezed somewhat in the process so they will lose some of the lemon oil which is trapped in the pores of the lemon rind and released the first time a twist is twisted. To cut a very long thin twist, use a channel knife to spiral down the fruit from top to bottom. Twists should only be cut on the day they are used.
Cut the end off the lemon, then cut across the fruit to create a circle between 5-10mm thick.
Always squeeze lime juice fresh if possible. There is no form of pre-packaged lime juice that approximates the flavor of fresh juice. 25ml is generally equal to half a lime.
To keep mint fresh, treat it like a bouquet of flowers. Place it in a glass of ice water and store it in the warmest part of the refrigerator. Do not pick the leaves from the stems until you need them. In some parts of the world whole mint plants can be purchased. These remain fresh longer. Dried mint does not work as a substitute.
Olives stuffed green
Cocktail olives are generally of the green Spanish variety. Though they often come stuffed with red pimento, un-stuffed olives are preferable unless specified in the recipe.
A versatile fruit for drinks, oranges are cut into slices, half slices, wedges, twists, twists for flaming, horse’s necks, and squeezed for juice. When frozen concentrated juice was introduced in 1951, the Screwdriver (vodka and orange juice) became popular. However, frozen concentrates and other forms of orange juice cannot match the flavor of fresh squeezed juice to this day.
Use a paring knife or vegetable peeler to cut a thin strip of the orange’s outer skin about 7-8cm long and about 2cm wide. . If the twist is to be used as a flaming twist, cut a thick circle about 3cm across.
Pineapple juice can be made fresh using a vegetable juicer. If pineapple juice is purchased in a tin, it should be poured into a plastic or glass container immediately upon opening. Always check stored juice before using it to ensure that it is still fresh.
AKA 7Up, lemonade
Sprite is a clear carbonated lemon-lime soft drink, and is generically referred to as lemonade in Britain.
Unless a particular style of beer is specified in a recipe, lager is recommended as it is the lightest and most versatile for use in mixed drinks.
Strawberries are very common red berries. They may differ in size, shape, and color from batch to batch as approximately twenty different varieties of strawberries are grown commercially around the world. Frozen and very ripe berries release more color than other berries.
Strawberries may be placed in a shaker and shaken with a drink. This is faster than muddling and allows you to strain out the seeds.
There are two basic categories of bitters: digestive or medicinal and aromatic. Digestive bitters were traditionally consumed in a small glass or used as a primary ingredient in a mixed drink. Examples of digestive bitters are Campari, Aperol, Suze, Jagermeister, and Unterberg.
Aromatic bitters are intensely flavorful and not made for straight consumption. They are normally added to cocktails in dashes and are packaged in small bottles with special tops designed to deliver a dash with each shake. If a recipe does not specify a particular type of bitters, it is usually indicating angostura bitters.
Cherries maraschino modern
Maraschino cherries were originally made by macerating morelli cherries in maraschino liqueur made from marasca cherries. The cherry stones are crushed in the process of making maraschino liqueur releasing a subtle almond flavor.
Cream of coconut is made my simmering the shaved or grated flesh from a mature coconut in an equal part of water (or coconut water) until it is frothy. The resulting liquid is strained through a cheese cloth. The liquid must be chilled to separate the coconut cream form the coconut milk. The cream of coconut normally used in bars is sweetened. The most common brand name is Coco Lopez.
Espresso is a special roast of coffee that is compressed in an espresso machine. Once it is compressed, hot water is forced through it under pressure to release intense flavor with as little water as possible. For this reason, espresso is called for specifically in many recipes. If a drink made with espresso is to be shaken, shake it harder and a little longer than a normal drink. The espresso will create a creamy froth on top of the drink.
A common green vegetable that can be used fresh as a garnish on drinks such as the Pimm’s Cup and the Bloody Mary, the cucumber’s flavor not savory but neutral, and is very similar to the flesh of the watermelon close to the rind. Like all fruit and vegetables meant for consumption, cucumbers should be washed before cutting and serving them.
A surprising number of classic drinks called for an egg yolk. Egg yolk does not foam like egg white. It is much richer in texture and adds a golden hue to a drink.
Many varieties of grapes can be used as garnish or muddled into a drink. For garnish, seedless varieties are preferable. Grapes can also be frozen individually pr on stems of three or four grapes. Dipping them in confectioners sugar make a particularly striking garnish.
Lemon horse’s neck
This is a lemon twist made from the peel of an entire lemon. To create a horse’s neck, begin peeling at the top of a lemon and spiral down to the bottom to create one continuous twist form the entire peel.
Cut the top and bottom off a lemon. Then cut across the lemon to create 5-10mm thick lemon slices or wheels.
Trim the tips off a lemon. Then cut it in half lengthwise. Cut each half in half lengthwise. Then cut each quarter in half lengthwise. A lemon yields eight wedges. For more economical service and for muddling, wedges can be cut in half widthwise.
This common green citrus fruit can be cut in a variety of ways for use in cocktails. It can be split in half and juiced. It can be cut into wedges, wheels, half wheels, twists, and more. Limes are sourer than limes and more acidic.
Trim the tips off a lime. Then cut it in half lengthwise. Cut each half in half lengthwise. Then cut each quarter in half lengthwise. A lime yields eight wedges. For more economical service and for muddling, wedges can be cut in half widthwise.
Cut the end off the lime, then cut across the fruit to create a circle between 5-10mm thick.
Nutmeg can be purchased grated or as a whole nut. Whole nutmeg retains its flavor longer and is easy to grate with a nutmeg or ginger grater or a kitchen rasp.
Orange flamed twist
To flame an orange twist, cut a round twist roughly 1.5 inches across. Cut it thick with plenty of white on the bottom. Be very careful not to bend it before you are ready to flame it. To flame the twist, hold it orange side down over a lit match or lighter for a second to warm the oils. Then aim the twist over the drink with the flame between the twist and the drink. Squeeze sharply. As they are released from the pores in the skin of the orange the oils will burst into flame and land on top of the drink. A flamed twist gives a more caramelized citrus flavor to a drink. To experience the aroma, try flaming a twist into an empty wine glass or brandy snifter.
Cut the top and bottom off an orange. Then cut across the orange to create 10mm thick orange slices. Half slices are often preferable. Cut the orange in half from top to bottom. Place the cut side flat on a cutting board, then slice across the orange to create 10mm thick half slices.
A piece of pineapple cut in a circle with the center core removed. Pineapple slices are normally purchased tinned in pineapple juice.
Pressed from ripe tomatoes, tomato juice is readily available in stores around the world. It should be noted that the flavor differs considerably in warmer climates. Tomato juice from France and Italy, for example, is much sweeter than tomato juice form the United States or Great Britain.